Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Renata B. Hesse Antitrust Division U.
Microsoft Settlement. My name is Rebecca Henderson. I write to express my deep concern with the terms of the proposed settlement between the United States and the Microsoft Corporation. In my view it does almost nothing to remedy the harm caused by Microsoft's prior illegal conduct, and the provisions that it includes in an attempt to forestall future anticompetitive conduct fall short on a number of important dimensions, Moreover it creates incentives for Microsoft to engage in behavior that has the potential to create significant harm for consumers.
As the Court found and the Appeals Court maintained, Microsoft engaged in a systematic pattern of illegal conduct in an attempt to undermine Netscape's position in the browser market. Microsoft came to believe that the Netscape Browser had the potential to develop into "cross-platform middleware," since it potentially enabled the development of full-featured PC applications on a range of platforms.
Microsoft viewed this possibility as a potent threat to its monopoly and moved against Netscape with devastating effect. Microsoft's predatory conduct crushed the possibility that Netscape might emerge as a viable alternative platform for full-featured applications development.
Microsoft's success in preventing the emergence of browser-based alternative platforms that would threaten the applications barrier to entry, along with its current overwhelming and increasing share of browser usage, puts the firm in an extraordinarily strong position to prevent the emergence of other threats to its desktop monopoly. The proposed settlement does almost nothing to attempt to redress this harm.
A world in which Netscape had succeeded in building a dominant share of the browser market would have been one that was significantly more conducive to competition and significantly more threatening to the Microsoft monopoly. A successful independent browser would not only have been potentially important cross platform middleware in its own right: it would also have been of enormous assistance to the further development of additional independent middleware. Both would have greatly increased the possibility that Microsoft's desktop monopoly would have faced significant competition.
Had Netscape succeeded the world would probably be different in three important respects. First, the Netscape browser might have become an ideal platform for web-centric and network-centric applications cross-platform applications. Second, if there had been a widely-distributed browser outside Microsoft's control, new middleware initiatives such as Java, that involve software running on the client would certainly have been able to achieve widespread distribution without Microsoft's sufferance.
Third, the existence of such a browser would have given Microsoft much less control over the evolution of important Internet interfaces, increasing the possibility that new types of middleware running on the server might emerge to facilitate challenges to the Windows monopoly. An independent browser might have become an ideal platform for web-centric and network-centric cross-platform applications. An independent browser enables developers to write cross-platform applications without additional porting costs.
As the Court found, "for at least the next few years, the overwhelming majority of consumers accessing server-based applications will do so using an Intel-compatible PC system and a browser," FOF 27 and a "browser product is particularly well positioned to serve as a platform for network-centric applications that run in association with Web pages.
Or as Microsoft's Ballmer expressed it: "the browser is as much a platform for what people will want to do in the Internet over the next several years as DOS was the platform for what people would want to do on personal computers.
Microsoft Tunney Act Comment : Rebecca Henderson
Microsoft's illegal actions ensured that Netscape did not have the opportunity to develop into this kind of cross platform middleware, and the proposed settlement does nothing to reverse this. As both the Court and the Appeals Court found, one of the goals of Microsoft's illegal conduct was the suppression of platform independent Java.
An independent, widely distributed Netscape Browser would have become an ideal vehicle for the distribution of this kind of platform independent middleware. Microsoft, in contrast, has very little incentive to distribute client based middleware that might facilitate the development of cross platform applications.
Netscape's defeat in the browser war means not only that the browser itself is not available as a platform for applications development but also that the Java virtual machine, and other middleware technologies like it, are much less likely to be widely available on the PC. The proposed settlement attempts to make the distribution of alternative middleware possible, but its provisions are incomplete and are likely to be ineffective.
Owning the dominant browser gives Microsoft great influence over the evolution of the Internet, and in particular over the evolution of important Internet interfaces. As Paul Maritz recognized, "By controlling the client, you also control the servers. This set of interfaces goes beyond the browser APIs to which developers can directly write applications, to include the set of interfaces that constitute the communications protocols between the browser and the network.
For information to be received and viewed in Internet Explorer, the developer has to follow these interfaces, and so has to conform to Microsoft standards.Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. My name is Rebecca Henderson. I received my S. I am a specialist in the economics of technological change and in the competitive dynamics of technology intensive industries.
I study the dynamics of competition over time and the ways in which technological shocks may impact the incentives and capabilities of established firms.
My research focuses upon persistence in patterns of behavior. It compares and contrasts economic incentives and organizational constraints as determinants of the ways in which firms make decisions about investments in new technology and the management of the innovative process.
In the course of this research I have routinely evaluated detailed evidence about the history of particular technologies and the internal workings of firms. I have taught a course in "technology strategy" since The course draws heavily on economic theory to explore the patterns of competition in technology-intensive industries and is designed to provide students with a portfolio of tools useful for framing strategic actions with respect to innovation and new product development.
I teach a condensed version of this course to practicing managers, a majority of whom hold senior leadership positions in their organizations. I also work as a consultant to the senior management of both large and small firms on strategic issues. Both my teaching and my consulting have given me an important opportunity to explore the validity of the ideas that I present in real world settings. I have been retained by the Department of Justice to consider issues relevant to remedy in this case.
With the assistance of specialists in information technology and related markets, I have studied the industry and the record in this case. I have focused particularly on how the dynamics of emerging technology may affect the future of the industry. I close with a brief explanation of what I believe to be an appropriate remedy in this matter.
My colleagues Paul Romer and Carl Shapiro address the proposed remedy in more depth. I have read their declarations and agree with their conclusions. FOF This monopoly is protected by a sizable applications barrier to entry FOF 36—56and its possession gives Microsoft both the incentive and the ability to attempt to destroy, co-opt or subvert any technology that threatens to reduce or erode this barrier.
FOF 68, Cross-platform middleware has the potential to erode the applications barrier to entry by making it possible for applications developers to write to a set of APIs that Microsoft does not control. Microsoft therefore has the incentive to support the development of middleware only to the extent that it promises to be a pure complement to the Windows PC operating system. If Microsoft were not a monopolist it would have much greater incentives to ensure that its operating system could interoperate with a wide range of middleware.
Microsoft came to believe that both the Netscape Browser and Java had the potential to develop into "cross-platform middleware," since both potentially enabled the development of full-featured PC applications on a range of platforms. Microsoft moved against these challenges with devastating effect. FOF RX As Microsoft itself recently proclaimed "The browser wars are over.
Browser Usage Shares January - April GX "The world of the Internet is rapidly becoming Windows centric, because Windows will be the most popular client operating system by a wide margin. Microsoft has both the incentive and the ability to continue its anticompetitive conduct, and absent relief Microsoft is free to deal with any future middleware threats that might emerge to the PC operating system monopoly in the same way that it dealt with Netscape.The international magazine "Times Higher Education" ranked the school among the best universities in the World University Rankings Gigi was one of the leading scholars in the field of economics of innovation, his research agenda was consistently insightful and creative, always driven by fundamental policy concerns.
In that role, he made a major contribution to the emergence and consolidation of the cooperation between Sant'Anna and IUSS. Gigi was an enthusiastic scholar, a gentle and kind man, always generous of his time and affection with friends, colleagues and students. He will be sorrowfully missed by everybody here at Sant'Anna. A walk in the mountains will not solve the climate crisis or save the planet but is a collective action to raise awareness about the impact of Economics and Management Law Political Sciences.
Admission International Mobility. First level Master's diploma. Second level Master's diploma. The Biorobotics Institute. Institute of Law, Politics and Development. Institute of Economics. Institute of Management. Institute of Communication, Information and Perception Technologies.
Admission Prospective students. International Institutions and Companies. Library Make a Gift. Luigi Orsenigo - obituary. Istituto di Economia. See also:.Curriculum Vitae. Place of Birth: London.
Doctorate in Business Economics. Mechanical Engineering. Academic Employment:. Non Academic Employment:. Summer Honors and Awards:. Dively Award for best thesis proposal, Harvard. Alumane Award, outstanding female graduate MIT. Journal Articles Refereed. Forthcoming at the Journal of Health Economics. Review of Economics and StatisticsVol.Top 10 CREEPIEST Mario Characters
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Oxford University Press, Oxford, U. Reprinted in Organizational Learningedited by Michael D. Cohen and Lee S. Conference Proceedings. SeptemberDanvers, MA. Working Papers.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF.
Luigi Orsenigo. Valerio Sterzi. This observation raises immediately to important sets of questions. First, can we document systematically this heterogeneity and can we provide a conceptual framework for explaining this diversity? Second, how should the patent system deal with these differences?
Should patent laws be tailored to industry specificities or should they be kept as homogeneous as possible? In this paper, we focus mainly on the first question and only tangentially on the second one. In particular, we try to review what is known about the inter-sectoral differences in the uses of patents and their more recent evolution and we suggest that such diversity is just to expected as it depends on complex interactions between the properties of technologies, the nature of markets and the patterns of competition, the evolution of legislation and its interpretation.
Introduction It has been long recognised that the role and effects of patents vary considerably across industries. Empirical studies of the uses of patents within and across industries have greatly increased our knowledge of the subject and theoretical analysis has also produced important results. However, our knowledge is still incomplete and fuzzy both as it regards the empirical evidence and the theoretical explanations.
To complicate matters further, in recent years dramatic transformations have taken place in managerial strategies and practices in this domain, in concomitance with the emergence of new technologies and industries paradigmatically but certainly not exclusively, biotechnologyprofound modifications in IPR legislation and interpretation and industry-specific structural changes.
In this paper, we try to review what is known about the inter-sectoral differences in the uses of patents and their more recent evolution and we suggest that such diversity is just to expected as it depends on complex interactions between the properties of technologies, the nature of markets and the patterns of competition, the evolution of legislation and its interpretation.
We start from recalling that patents have multiple functions, which bear different relevance across industries and over time Section 2.
In Section 3 we concentrate attention on the basic evidence on the primary role of patents as a tool for securing returns to innovative activities. Section 5 illustrates different motivations for patenting -- related to exchanges of technology, strategic uses of patents and signalling and again we argue that the nature of technologies goes a long way to account for those differences.
In Section 6 we focus on two particularly relevant and illustrative industries, namely ICT on the one hand and chemicals and pharmaceuticals on the other. These industries are characterised by very different technological regimes and have undergone deep changes in the ways patents are used: thus, a focus on these cases might be useful to substantiate and updating the older and more aggregate results discussed in the previous sections. In Section 7, we turn briefly on the issue of whether industry- or technology specific patent laws could be beneficial and feasible.Her father died when she was nine, and they had to share a house with another family, the Serenellis.
Maria took over household duties while her mother, brothers, and sister worked in the fields. One afternoon, Alessandrothe Serenellis' twenty-year-old son, made sexual advances to her. When she refused to submit to him, he stabbed her fourteen times. She was taken to the hospital but she died forgiving him. He was arrested, convicted, and jailed. During imprisonment, he repented. After 27 years he was released from prison and visited her mother to beg forgiveness, which she granted.
He later became a lay brother in a monastery, dying in She was beatified inand canonized in She is especially venerated in the Congregation of the Passion Passionists. By the time Maria was five, her family had become so poor that they were forced to give up their farm, move, and work for other farmers. Inthey moved to Colle Gianturco, near Paliano and Frosinoneabout fifty miles outside Rome ; and then in to Le Ferrierenear modern Latina and Nettuno in Laziowhere they lived in a building, "La Cascina Antica," they shared with another family which included Giovanni Serenelli and his son, Alessandro.
On July 5,eleven-year-old Maria was sitting on the outside steps of her home, sewing one of Alessandro's shirts and watching Teresa, while Alessandro was threshing beans in the barnyard.
She would not submit, however, protesting that what he wanted to do was a mortal sin and warning him that he would go to Hell. It is a sin!
Time to exit: “revolving door effect” or “Schumpeterian gale of creative destruction”?
God does not want it! Teresa awoke with the noise and started crying, and when Assunta and Giovanni came to check on her, they found Maria on the floor bleeding and took her to the nearest hospital in Nettuno.
She underwent surgery without anesthesiabut her injuries were beyond the doctors' help. Halfway through the surgery, she woke up.
The pharmacist said to her, "Maria, think of me in Paradise. She also expressed concern for her mother's welfare. A third account of the assault was presented by Italian historian Giordano Bruno Guerri in He asserted that, while in prison, Alessandro stated that he did not complete the assault and Maria died a virgin.
Guerri identifies the weapon as an awl rather than a dagger. Alessandro Serenelli was captured shortly after the attack: the police taking him to prison overtook the ambulance carrying Maria to the hospital.
He remained unrepentant and uncommunicative from the world for three years, until a local bishop, Monsignor Giovanni Blandini, visited him in jail. He wrote a thank you note to the Bishop asking for his prayers and telling him about a dream, "in which Maria gave him lilies, which burned immediately in his hands. After his release, Alessandro visited Assunta and begged her forgiveness.
She forgave him, and they attended Mass together the next day, receiving Holy Communion side by side. Alessandro later became a lay brother of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchinliving in a monastery and working as its receptionist and gardener until he died in at age Maria was beatified on April 27, On the evening of the ceremony in Saint Peter's Basilicathe Pope walked over to and greeted Assunta. He put his hand on my head and said, "Blessed mother, happy mother, mother of a Blessed!
Alessandro was also present. Owing to the huge crowd present, the ceremonies associated with the canonization were held outside Saint Peter's Basilicain the Piazza San Pietro.The cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete: construction began inand the final details were completed in It is the largest church in Italy—the larger St.
Peter's Basilica is in the State of Vatican Citya sovereign nation—and the second largest in Europe and the fourth largest in the world. Milan's layout, with streets either radiating from the Duomo or circling it, reveals that the Duomo occupies what was the most central site in Roman Mediolanumthat of the public basilica facing the forum.
It seems to share, on a slightly smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church recently rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. The old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristianodates to and still can be visited under the Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica inthey were rebuilt as the Duomo. InArchbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral. Before actual work began, three main buildings were demolished: the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St.
Stephen at the Spring, while the old church of Sta. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry. Enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress. The construction program was strictly regulated under the "Fabbrica del Duomo", which had employees led by first chief engineer Simone da Orsenigo.
Orsenigo initially planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture. Ina French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes.
Ten years later another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, as the masons needed new technical aid to lift stones to an unprecedented height.
In the following years Mignot's forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzo's engineers to improve their instruments and techniques. Work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo inalmost half the cathedral was complete. Construction, however, stalled almost totally untilfor lack of money and ideas: the most notable works of this period were the tombs of Marco Carelli and Pope Martin V and the windows of the apse sof which those extant portray St.
Inunder Francesco Sforzathe nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay. Inboth Leonardo da Vinci and Donato Bramante created models in a competition to design the central cupola; Leonardo later withdrew his submission.
The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dell'Amadeo " Amadeo 's Little Spire"constructed — This is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained largely unfinished, and some bays of the nave and the transepts were still missing.
In Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build a large organ for the north side of the choir, and Giuseppe Meda provided four of the sixteen pales which were to decorate the altar area the program was completed by Federico Borromeo.
InMarco d' Agrate's St. Bartholomew and the famous Trivulzio candelabrum 12th century were added. After the accession of Carlo Borromeo to the archbishop's throne, all lay monuments were removed from the Duomo. However, Borromeo's main intervention was the appointment, inof Pellegrino Pellegrini as chief engineer— a contentious move, since to appoint Pellegrino, who was not a lay brother of the duomo, required a revision of the Fabbrica's statutes.
This design was never carried out, but the interior decoration continued: in the presbytery was rebuilt, while new altars and the baptistry were added. The wooden choir stalls were constructed by for the main altar by Francesco Brambilla.
In Borromeo finally consecrated the whole edifice as a new church, distinct from the old Santa Maria Maggiore and Santa Tecla which had been unified in after heavy disputes. Work continued until with the construction of five portals and two middle windows. Other designs were provided by, among others, Filippo Juvarra and Luigi Vanvitellibut all remained unapplied.