Bridge abutment design manual

The manual provides:.

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The standard drawings can be downloaded, in PDF file format, from the table below. This log stringer bridge is suitable for restricted traffic loads after removal of an all-steel portable bridge.

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Skip to main content Skip to main navigation Skip to side navigation Accessibility Statement. Section Navigation. Resource Road Safety Information. Material Standards. Forest Service Road Signs. Radio Communications. Climate Change Adaptation. Standard Bridge Design Vehicles. Steel Girder Bridge with Composite Deck.

Log Stringer Bridge This log stringer bridge is suitable for restricted traffic loads after removal of an all-steel portable bridge. Engineering Manual The B.List of Abutment Design Standards: [Show]. Current practice is to make decks integral with the abutments. The objective is to avoid the use of joints over abutments and piers.

Expansion joints are prone to leak and allow the ingress of de-icing salts into the bridge deck and substructure. These abutments are suitable for the larger span decks.

Open Side Span with Bank Seats. Usually the narrow bridge is cheaper in the open abutment form and the wide bridge is cheaper in the solid abutment form. The exact transition point between the two types depends very much on the geometry and the site of the particular bridge.

In most cases the open abutment solution has a better appearance and is less intrusive on the general flow of the ground contours and for these reasons is to be preferred.

It is the cost of the wing walls when related to the deck costs which swings the balance of cost in favour of the solid abutment solution for wider bridges. However the wider bridges with solid abutments produce a tunnelling effect and costs have to be considered in conjunction with the proper functioning of the structure where fast traffic is passing beneath. Solid abutments for narrow bridges should only be adopted where the open abutment solution is not possible.

In the case of wide bridges the open abutment solution is to be preferred, but there are many cases where economy must be the overriding consideration. These loads are carried by the bearings which are seated on the abutment bearing platform.

Bridge Design & Construction Manual for Forest Service Roads

The horizontal loads may be reduced by depending on the coefficient of friction of the bearings at the movement joint in the structure. However, the full braking effect is to be taken, in either direction, on top of the abutment at carriageway level. In addition to the structure loads, horizontal pressures exerted by the fill material against the abutment walls is to be considered.

Also a vertical loading from the weight of the fill acts on the footing. Vehicle loads at the rear of the abutments are considered by applying a surcharge load on the rear of the wall. For certain short single span structures it is possible to use the bridge deck to prop the two abutments apart. This entails the abutment wall being designed as a propped cantilever. Menu Home About Bridge Design. Design Notes. Preliminary Design Reinforced Concrete Prestressed Concrete Steel Box Steel Truss Cable Stayed Wing Walls.

Spreadsheets Tutorials Workshop Resources. Sc, C. Eng, MICE.At rest pressures are initially developed on the back of the abutment wall during construction and whilst the backfill is compacting.

Consequently the structural elements have to be designed to resist the effects of these pressures. Any movements in the structure caused by the at rest pressure, either through rotation or deflection will reduce the pressure on the back of the wall; a state of equilibrium is reached when the pressure reduces to the active earth pressure value.

Consequently the stability of the structure can be checked by using active earth pressures. Passive pressures are developed when the structure pushes against the soil. Since movements required to develop passive pressures are considerably greater than that for active pressures, and the structure is designed to ensure that the foundations do not slide under active pressures, then it is unlikely that passive pressures will be developed in front of the abutment.

The magnitude of movement required to mobilise passive pressure can be determined from EN Clause C. There is also the chance that, at some time in the future, the soil in front of the abutment may be removed temporarily. This could happen if services, such as drainage pipes, water or gas mains, are installed or repaired in front of the abutment. Consequently the structure needs to be designed to be stable with no soil in front of the concrete footings. If shear keys are required to prevent sliding then the key should be located under the rear half of the base and a factored value of passive pressure is used.

Integral bridges experience passive pressures on the back of the abutment wall when the deck expands. Departmental Standard BD 30 gives recommendations for the layout of backfilled cantilever retaining walls with spread footings or piled foundations. The layout of the abutment will have implications on the design which need to be considered.

The provision of a drainage layer will allow porewater pressures to be ignored unless there is a possibility of a large water main bursting. However the drainage layer separates the backfill soil from the wall so back of wall friction should not be included.

Traffic vibration will also affect any vertical friction effects on the back of the wall. Foundation level is usually set at least one metre below ground level to avoid deterioration of the foundation material through frost action.

If services, such as gas pipes, water mains, electricity cables etc. This equates to serviceability limit state values of:. Loading from the deck is applied to the abutment through the bearings. Maximum vertical bearing loads are obtained from the deck analysis; these loads, together with the type of restraint required to support the deck, will dictate the type of bearing provided. Horizontal loads from the deck are produced by wind loading, temperature effects, creep movements, traction, braking and skidding loads, collision loads when high level of containment parapets are used, and centrifugal loads if the horizontal radius of curvature of the carriageway is less than metres when using BSor metres when using EN Longitudinal loads from temperature effects in the deck will be determined according to the type of bearing used.

Elastomeric bearings are effectively 'glued' in place between the deck soffit and the abutment bearing plinth so that the bearing has to distort when the deck expands and contracts.

The longitudinal force produced by this distortion is proportional to the shear stiffness of the bearing and the magnitude of the movement. Sliding bearings, on the other hand, produce a longitudinal load which is proportional to the dead permanent load reaction and the coefficient of friction between the sliding surfaces.

The longitudinal load from the temperature effect will act equally on both abutments. If sliding bearings are used then the load transmitted is equal to the friction at the bearing under dead and superimposed dead loads permanent actions.

If elastomeric bearings are used then the load transmitted is equal to the force required to distort the bearing by the distance the deck expands or contracts. The deck is very stiff in the axial direction so horizontal loads will have negligible effect on the length of the deck.

Hence longitudinal loads due to traction, braking and skidding are assumed to be transmitted to the fixed abutment only. Any frictional resistance from sliding bearings at the free end of the deck would produce a relieving effect on the fixed bearing and should therefore be ignored when designing the fixed bearing. If only elastomeric bearings are used, i. Transverse loads on the deck will be transmitted to the abutment through the fixed and sliding-guided bearings only.

These loads are unlikely to have an effect on the stability of a full height abutment, but the bearing plinths need to be designed to resist the loads.

The stability of small abutments, such as bank seats, may need to be checked for these loads.

bridge abutment design manual

Live loading at the rear of the abutment is represented by a surcharge loading see BS Part clause 5. Traction, braking and skidding loads at the rear of the abutment are not required to be considered when using EN see clause 4.Higher strengths may be required in special cases. For abutments supporting Tx70 girders, use a cap width of at least 4. For abutments supporting Type IV beams or U beams, use a cap width of at least 3.

bridge abutment design manual

For all other structure types refer to the bridge standard drawings for recommended cap widths. Examples of sufficient restraint are slab spans and pan form spans that are doweled into the abutment. Avoid battered piling in areas immediately adjacent to MSE walls because of the difficulty of installing the backfill. If sufficient room is provided for MSE wall straps and compaction, battered piles may be used. Drilled shaft loads may be calculated as the total vertical load on the cap divided equally among the cap shafts.

Wing wall shaft or pile load is usually taken as 10 tons per shaft or pile, unless calculated vertical loads are higher.

Calculate pile loads as the total vertical load on the cap divided equally among the cap pilings. For abutments with battered piling, add the horizontal force specified above to the vertical load.

The back pile is not allowed to go into tension due to the lateral load, considering dead load and soil pressure only unless the addition of further foundation elements or other mitigation efforts fail to eliminate the presence of tension. Search for the word or phrase:. Anchor: i Geometric Constraints For abutments supporting Tx70 girders, use a cap width of at least 4. In unique cases requiring additional bearing area, the primary backwall may be positioned at the back of the abutment cap.

Structural analysis is generally not required for abutments within the geometric constraints noted in the Bridge Detailing Guide. Exceptions include cases where abutment has significant likelihood of acting as a bent due to scour and stream migration or known future expansion plans would result in lengthening the bridge.

Limit spacing of primary flexural reinforcing bars to no more than 18 in. For all other abutments see Table 3. Retaining type abutments in questionable soils may justify a more rigorous analysis. Search in: this manual only.The Bridge Section develops plans, specifications, and estimates for bridges, sign structures, retaining walls, and other transportation structures. Bridge Section functions include reviewing consultant designs and providing assistance to the Local Highway Technical Assistance Council.

Bridge Design & Construction Manual for Forest Service Roads

The Bridge Section also performs biennial bridge inspections to insure safety for the traveling public in accordance with the National Bridge Inspection Standards NBISdevelops repair recommendations for existing bridges, performs load ratings, and determines load postings and closings of deficient bridges. Other responsibilities include the development, implementation, and operation of the Bridge Management System to provide system-wide condition analysis and reporting to support bridge-programming decisions.

Please send comments, questions and suggestions to Mike. Ebright itd. BoxBoise, Idaho Appendix A — Design Aids A2. Appendix A — Design Aids A6. Your Safety. Your Mobility. Your Economic Opportunity. Home Bridge Design Bridge Design. This chapter empty at this time.

Contact Information.This page contains a listing of all the approved Bridge Detail BD sheets that have been issued. BD sheets are intended to show how the typical parts that make up a bridge are to be detailed.

Each sheet number begins with the prefix BD. The next part of the sheet number is a two letter ID which is used to group sheets with a similiar theme ex. AB for abutment. If a sheet has been revised since its original issuance, a suffix of R1 is added to the sheet number.

bridge abutment design manual

For the second revision, R2 is used and so on. The sheets will be displayed 11" x 17" and can be printed while inside the web browser. No CADD software is required. Preview files are in portable document format PDF.

bridge abutment design manual

Adobe Acrobat Reader version 5. This link is to a zipped file which contains all the CADD files for that group. It will need to be unzipped after downloading to retrieve the individual files. Click on the group ID in the table below to jump to that particular section in the sheet listing. Your browser does not support iFrames. Navigation menu. Approach Drainage.Those interested in statistics holding or anticipating an undergraduate degree in engineering, mathematics, science, or some other field that indicates a likelihood of successful completion of the program are encouraged to apply.

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